Vitamin B-12 is bound to intrinsic factor during transit through the stomach, separation occurs in the terminal ileum (last part of the small intestines) in the presence of calcium.
Vitamin B-12 deficiencies due to malabsorption may be associated with the following conditions:
-Addisonian (pernicious) anemia.
Warning Vitamin B-12 deficiency that is allowed to progress for longer than 3 months may produce permanent degenerative lesions on the spinal cord.
Maximum dosage should not exceed 10 mcg daily. So, if you have the standard 1mg/mL vitamin B-12 this would be 1cc intramuscular injection per week.
Serious complications can result from improper usage of this Vitamin. Anaphylactic shock and death have been reported with administration of Vitamin B-12.
Causes of hypoferremia (iron deficiency)
Iron circulates in the blood bound to transferrin. Transferrin is responsible for shuttling iron between sites of absorption, storage and utilization for the biosynthesis of iron-containing macromolecules. Receptors have been identified on the surface of reticulocytes (young red blood cells), hepatocytes (a type of liver cell), lymphocytes (white blood cells) and fibroblasts (a type of cell in connective tissue).
The best way to confirm iron deficiency is to demonstrate lack of iron stores in bone marrow.